The Gulen Movement: An Islamic Response to Terror as a Global Challenge
Whilst globalization seems to be winning the battle against both modern and traditional movements which were, until fairly recently, quite active on both the national and the regional levels, it is doubtful that the challenges brought about by globalization can be easily met by some of the world’s stronger movements, some of which have been bred by the clashing visions of globalization itself (cf. Hoffman, 2002). To see history in its fullest form, one should be aware of the need for negotiating those clashing visions within globalization as well as the political agendas and transcripts – some of which are hidden – of the various players who may also possess other versions of reality in the context of making history (cf. Benjamin, 1969; Scott, 1990). Islam, as a universal religion struggling to maintain its cultural character and values as well as a secure place in the face of rapidly emerging global challenges, cannot exempt itself from the on-going clashes, part of which are not identified clearly enough as definitions and redefinitions of various concepts pertaining to globalization are still underway.